Blepharoplasty (eyelid surgery) is a plastic surgery procedure for correcting sagging or drooping eyelids. The eyelid, because its skin is much thinner than that in other parts of the face, is often one of the first facial areas to exhibit signs of aging. Eyelids that sag or droop can affect peripheral vision, making daily activities such as driving more difficult. Blepharoplasty may become necessary when various factors, which include aging, sun damage, smoking and obesity, cause the muscles and tissue that support the eyelids to weaken.
Also known as a forehead lift, a brow lift is a surgical procedure performed to reduce signs of aging in the forehead area. It aims to remove or minimize deep horizontal creases across the forehead and bridge of the nose, and the frown lines between the eyebrows. It also lifts the eyebrows, making the eyes look more open.
Over time, gravity and sun exposure take their toll on the face and neck. Deep creases that run from each side of the nose to the corners of the mouth appear; the jawline slackens; and the neck develops loose folds and fat deposits. A facelift (rhytidectomy) counteracts these signs of aging by tightening muscle, removing fat and trimming excess skin, giving the face a fresher, more youthful look.
Rhinoplasty (nose surgery) is one of the most frequently performed plastic surgery procedures. During rhinoplasty, the nose is reshaped, reduced or augmented to improve its appearance. Rhinoplasty may be performed to correct a birth defect, or repair an injury such as a broken nose. It is also often performed strictly for cosmetic reasons.
Most of the auricle (external portion) of the ear consists of skin over contoured cartilage; muscles and ligaments hold it in place. The lobe of the ear does not contain any cartilage, however, making it susceptible to damage, particularly if it has been pierced. Wearing heavy earrings can cause the hole in the earlobe, or the earlobe itself, to stretch considerably, or the earlobe to split or tear. A forceful pull on an inserted earring can also cause the earlobe to tear. Tears are categorized as partial, complete or multiple, and are often repaired by plastic surgeons, dermatologists and otolaryngologists.
Cheek augmentation using cheek implants is an option for those who want to replace facial fullness lost through aging, or for those who simply want more prominent cheekbones. The ideal candidate is old enough that the head and skull are no longer growing (maturation is usually reached by late adolescence), is in good overall health, does not smoke, and has realistic surgical goals.